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Malfunctioning Mitochondria at the Heart of Many Cardiovascular Diseases

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Malfunctioning Mitochondria at the Heart of Many Cardiovascular Diseases Post & News admin January 24, 2023 NewswiseMany cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, or ‚Äėhardening of the arteries,‚Äô correlate to mitochondrial dysfunction and endothelial impairment in the tissues of the heart and blood vessels. Despite a significant improvement in therapies to treat cardiovascular disease, there is an unmet need to investigate mitochondria as a therapeutic target.A review published recently explores the existing literature on relevant studies and makes recommendations for further study. The paper was written by Professor Giovanni Ciccarelli, M.D., Interventional Cardiologist at Monaldi Hospital of Naples, Italy, and Adjunct Professor of Biology at the College of Science and Technology at Temple University. Co-authors include an international team working with the Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine and the Sbarro Health Research Organization (SHRO), which SHRO Founder and President Antonio Giordano lead, M.D., Ph.D., professor at Temple University and the University of Siena.The paper,¬† ‚ÄúMitochondrial Dysfunction: The Hidden Player in the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis?‚Ä̬†appears in the¬†International Journal of Molecular Sciences. The authors propose a closer examination is necessary of this relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction, endothelial impairment, and atherosclerosis, to identify new precision medicine targets to better regulate mitochondrial functioning in patients with these conditions.Malfunctioning mitochondria cause endothelial dysfunction due to a molecule called a reactive oxygen species (ROS), or ‚Äėfree radicals,‚Äô which are produced by the dysfunctional mitochondria. The increase in ROS then leads to oxidative stress, inflammation, and a buildup of cholesterol and lipids, forming atherosclerotic plaque in the blood vessels.¬†¬†The modulation of mitochondrial function through precision medicine could delay the development of this endothelial dysfunction.¬†Although mitochondria have been recognized as a new therapeutic target in different pathological contexts, no clinical or preclinical studies have been designed on atherosclerosis.¬†Both antioxidants and gene therapy are attractive approaches for the treatment of atherosclerosis, however, further studies are needed.¬†The authors hope to start new clinical or preclinical trials to explore the effect of mitochondrial modulation on the development of atherosclerotic plaque and to evaluate if this kind of therapeutic intervention could lead to a significant reduction of residual risk related to ischemic cardiovascular disease. Previous PostNext Post

Are the Benefits of New Cancer Drugs Worth the Cost?

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Are the Benefits of New Cancer Drugs Worth the Cost? Post & News admin December 22, 2022 Newswise ‚ÄĒ An international research group including scientists from Italy, the United States, Ireland, and Israel have published a three-year analysis of the Mesothelioma (Me) drug trial, Check-Mate 743 (CM-743). The trial studied the use of combination therapy with Nivolumab and Ipilimumab to treat this stubborn cancer arising from pleural linens and mostly related to exposure to asbestos fibers.The project has been led by Antonio Giordano¬† Director of Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine at Temple University, President of the¬†Sbarro Health Research Organization (SHRO)¬†and affiliated as well with the University of Siena, and Luciano Mutti Professor at Oncology University of l’ Aquila.¬† Department of Applied Clinical Sciences and Biotechnology and Adj Prof of Translational Oncology attorney¬† SHRO.Although CM-743 has prompted some regulatory bodies to approve this treatment as a front-line therapy for Me, the authors had already raised serious concerns over the actual efficacy in an analysis published on¬†JAMA Network Open¬†in March 2022.In this article, the authors go further and not only provide the evidence that the same biases pointed out earlier still affect the three-year results of CM-743 but also scrutinize all the most recent trials conducted on Me remarking how these trials should also be considered with great caution.¬†‚ÄúAll these other trials show one or more of the biases noted in CM-743,‚ÄĚ the author remark, ‚Äúin particular, patient selection and the sub-optimal control arm are worrisome and determine conditions that are really too far away from the clinical reality to allow any conclusions of the treatments proposed. In Italy, Ipilimumab/Nivolumab received the registration only in very selected cases,‚ÄĚ the authors continue, ‚Äúand on the basis of our analysis we are convinced that none of these treatments show any significant step forward in the fight against this tumor.‚Ä̬†¬†¬†The authors also provide evidence that not only the new treatments proposed for Me but, more generally, those proposed for many other tumors have put health systems worldwide under huge financial stress without demonstrating a comparable impact on patient survival.‚ÄúThis evidence should be carefully considered. The cost of treatment should be gauged on the actual benefit to patients. If a drug is approved on the basis of improved progression-free survival cannot cost as much as another one that confers better survival when compared with the more effective standard treatment,‚ÄĚ the authors conclude. Previous PostNext Post

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Links Between Neurological Involvement and Respiratory Damage in SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Links Between Neurological Involvement and Respiratory Damage in SARS-CoV-2 Infection Post & News admin November 29, 2022 Newswise ‚ÄĒ Researchers working with Sbarro Health Research Organization (SHRO) have published a paper examining the possible links between neurological involvement and respiratory damage due to COVID-19. Pathways examined include neuro-immune interactions, age-related immunity decline, and some pathological mechanisms that contribute to worse outcomes in COVID-19 patients.¬† Although respiratory symptoms are the main clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection, neurological involvement is clearly present. Anosmia (loss of smell), ageusia (loss of taste), cough, fatigue, and headache are reported as the most common mild neurological symptoms, while some patients can experience severe ones, such as encephalopathy and acute cerebrovascular diseases.¬†The researchers include SHRO Director and Founder Antonio Giordano, M.D., Ph.D., with collaborators at Temple University, and the University of Siena, Italy.The variability of COVID-19 clinical manifestations could be explained by the ubiquitous expression of the human cell receptors with which the viral protein Spike1 can interact. Such receptors are present not only in the lower respiratory tract, but also in extrapulmonary sites such as the heart, kidney, endothelial cells of blood vessels, and the nervous system.¬†These observations have sparked interest in the ability of the virus to interact with different tissues and damage them directly or indirectly through the inflammatory response.¬†The authors conclude that neurologic symptoms are one of the clinical aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection and are prevalently associated with conditions in which the immune system is diminished, as in elderly patients and severe clinical profiles.¬†These neurological manifestations are associated with more severe disease, leading to a longer recovery, and higher death rates during hospitalization.Read the paper here. Previous PostNext Post

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Dr. Giordano meets Speaker Nancy Pelosi, De Laurentiis & Petrone at the 47th anniversary of NIAF

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Dr. Giordano meets Speaker Nancy Pelosi, De Laurentiis & Petrone at the 47th anniversary of NIAF Post & News admin October 31, 2022 Washington D.C. Professor Antonio Giordano founder of Sbarro Health Research Organization (SHRO) meet with Nancy Pelosi, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, Aurelio De Laurentiis, President of Napoli Football Club, and Massimo Petrone of the Petrone Group on the occasion of the 47th Anniversary of ‘The National Italian American Foundation’ (NIAF) hosted at Washington D.C. Professor Giordano is close with Speaker Nancy Pelosi and her family and has extended his good wishes and prayers to the Pelosi family. Previous PostNext Post

Cellular Cilium an Early Sign of Mesothelioma Differentiation

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Cellular Cilium an Early Sign of Mesothelioma Differentiation Post & News admin October 28, 2022 As Published on Newswise ‚ÄĒ A new study investigated the expression of the primary cilium in mesothelioma, finding that primary cilia is preferentially lost in the more aggressive subtype of mesothelioma and further research may confirm its potential prognostic and diagnostic value. This is the first evidence that different mesothelioma, characterized by different levels of aggressiveness, show a different pattern of primary cilium expression. Primary cilium is an organelle protruding from the cell membrane that, like an antenna, collects signals from the extracellular space and transduces information into cells. Many tumors do not express the primary cilium thereby overriding its tumor suppressor function. Despite the importance of the primary cilium, there is still a lot to understand about its functions. The study, published in the journal¬†Cancers, was directed by Antonio Giordano, M.D., Ph.D., Professor at the Department of Medical Biotechnology of the University of Siena and President of the Sbarro Health Research Organization (SHRO). “With this study we have identified a possible marker of the heterogeneity of this orphan disease, mesothelioma, a tumor with still poor prognosis,” said prof. Giordano. ‚ÄúThe improvement of existing treatments for mesothelioma is mainly hampered by the heterogeneity that characterizes it.‚ÄĚ “This study underlines the importance of tailored therapies for mesothelioma patients,” said Cristiana Bellan, Professor at the Department of Medical Biotechnology of the University of Siena, “and in this context our analysis can help identify which patients could benefit from specific treatment.‚ÄĚ Journal Reference:¬† Barbarino, M. et al. Analysis of Primary Cilium Expression and Hedgehog Pathway Activation in Mesothelioma Throws Back Its Complex Biology.¬†Cancers¬†2022,¬†14, 5216. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14215216 Previous PostNext Post